The Colour of Money in Multiracial Jamaica

On a flight from Miami several years ago, I sat next to a little girl who seemed to about 10 or so years of age.  She was looking through a magazine and came across a picture of three little girls – black, white and brown.  I mischievously asked her, “Which one of them looks like you?”  She picked the black child.

I then asked her, “Which one do you look like?”  And, believe it or not, she chose the brown child.  Mi nearly dead.  I wondered if she had misunderstood.  After all, it was a kind of trick question I was asking her about racial identity.  But no, she did understand.  As far as she was concerned, the black girl looked like her but she did not look like the black girl.  And, in a funny way, it made perfectly good sense.  It’s OK for the black girl to look like her; but not for her to look like the black girl.

  So who is responsible for this crazy conundrum?  Was this just an exceptional case of a little child confused by the fool-fool questions of a nosy adult? Or were the little girl’s curious answers a sign of our collective paranoia about race in Jamaica?  How does our national motto complexify the problem, as the Americans say?  Oh, yes!  If you can simplify, it’s perfectly logical to complexify.

Skewed against blackness

In 1969, a two-dollar bill was issued when Jamaica changed from sterling currency.  Two Jamaican dollars then had real value, worthy of the paper on which the note was printed.  These days, two dala kyaan buy notn.  The bill is no longer in circulation.  It’s been replaced by practically worthless coins.

On the back of the two-dollar bank note, there was a now-famous photograph of 11 children who were supposed to illustrate the national motto.  These same children, frozen in time, have reappeared to grace the back of the 2012 commemorative bank notes.  Of course, I have nothing against these innocent children, now hard-back adults.  What fascinates me is the racial ideology of the times that resulted in a distorted representation of the face of Jamaica. Regrettably, that legacy lives on.

The obvious problem with that lingering ‘Out of Many, One People’ photograph is that it’s skewed against blackness.  If you were to stage a photograph today that accurately represents the distribution of the races in Jamaica, you would have to have at least one hundred children in the sample. That’s the only way you could get a whole Chinese, Indian and white child in the frame. You would end up with 90 black children, 7 mixed-race, 1 Chinese, 1 Indian and 1 white.  Quite a different picture!

Randomly selected?

A Flair Magazine article published on August 7, 2000 tells the story of the snapshot of the ‘two-dollar’ children:  “Eleven boys and girls from Central Branch Primary on Slipe Pen Road, were randomly selected for the picture.

Of the eleven, four are Blacks, one Chinese and one of Chinese and Black mixture. Three are Indians or of Indian and Black ancestry and two appear to be White or Syrian in descent”.

Randomly selected?  Hardly likely.  Jamaica is not Trinidad and Tobago.  I would bet my last dollar that a random selection of students at the Central Branch Primary School, even in 1961 when the photo was taken, would look quite different from this colour-coordinated cluster.  They would be much more uniformly black, as in the photograph of the children on the huge commemorative banner now outside the gates of Jamaica House.

The anonymous author of the Flair article does disclose that the students were not randomly selected after all: “Former principal of the school, Mrs. Elorine Walker said that when she got the request for the students, she had no idea what the picture would be used for, but had hand-picked a few students for the occasion”.

Passing for Black

Hand-picking continues today in our advertising industry.  But it really doesn’t bother me too much if private-sector firms handpick exclusively ‘Out of Many, One’ models to advertise their products and services.  All that means is that they don’t expect me to patronise them.  But when public-sector entities discriminate against black people in their advertising, that’s a whole other business.

Almost 17 years ago, I wrote a column on Air Jamaica’s infamous ‘Out of Many, One People’ billboard which featured a grouping of eight children who looked even less representative than those on the two-dollar note. My immediate reaction was, ‘But them don’t have any black children in this picture!’  I called Air Jamaica’s public-relations department and got the name of the agency that had developed the ad.

I was invited to have a look at the artwork that had been sent to the manufacturer of the billboard.  To be fair, two of the eight children could pass for black.  Just barely.  But by the time the image got transferred to the billboard format, the melanin had been bleached out of them.  All eight children had blended into out-of-oneness.  And the problem was much bigger than Air Jamaica.

The original photograph had come from the Jamaica Tourist Board.  Whose conception of Jamaican identity resulted in the decision to market our country in this colour-coded way?  Why are we still rubbing out black people from the big picture?  Or, at best, downplaying blackness?  Which Jamaica are we selling?  And who to?

No wonder that little girl sitting next to me on the flight from Miami couldn’t see herself as black. Her self-concept was quite high in Jamaican terms, however delusional.  She had already learned that being brown was better than being black. And our advertising industry keeps on reinforcing that point. If we’re not careful, black identity in Jamaica will go the way of the two-dollar bill.

12 thoughts on “The Colour of Money in Multiracial Jamaica

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  1. Sintra was a legend and a great “sticking in the memory bank” image, mostly for men but I must say many women responded to it too. Later we got, in my opinon, better posters, but to have a public display without Sintra would always bring on the question ” Where is the lady with the red T-shirt”. My favourite poster of all times was “Doris Mothersill” – a true reflection of majority Jamaica. The campaigns were mostly designed by big US ad agencies and they differed depending on the brief they got. If you had a look at the campaigns of the day and checked which party was in government you can see a difference, most noteably in the 70s and 80s.

  2. Well observed and true! Here in Norway where I’m living temporarily 2% of the population is non-white. They hardly ever show up anywhere as a representative of this country or its people. In Jamaica the ethnic make up is the same, only about 2% or so can be considered non-black, but it’s usually this 2% that are often promoted as the face of Jamaica overseas. Very sad state of affairs. It hurts to think that as a black female I wouldn’t count for nothing in my own country.

  3. This article is so ‘on point’, thank you for being so brave to write these words. This article explains why so many beautiful black people are bleaching, or should I say, self harming. It’s a colonial mind set that is being perpetuated and inflicted onto the people via Euro centric media -TV, films, magazines, music videos you name it! Unfortunately it’s not confined to Jamaica or the Caribbean but is a international problem. In the many countries of Africa, south America, and England, black people, (females in particular) are disregarded for the lighter/whiter/straighter!
    I am of mixed Jamaican heritage (Indian and black) but was born and raised in England so I’m classed as Black over here, it was only when I lived in Jamaica that I was placed in the mixed raced bracket. England has the same problem, black females weave, bleach themselves ‘pretty’ and more and more black men prefer to date/marry non black females. Advertisement agencies, TV shows opt for mix raced people (if we are lucky enough to of been considered) to represent black people …. There’s so much more to write but I don’t want to high jack your post!!!

    Sugar Coated Curls from ioney smallhorne on Vimeo.

  4. We also have some Jamaicans in Canada trying desperately to sell this fallacious idea “Out of Many One”, when clearly the Jamaican community here is comprised of more than 90% people of African descent. Just last year, there was an article written in one of Canada’s Black magazine to commemorate Jamaica 50th and the photos used were more a reflection of the ‘multiculturalism’ seen in some major cities abroad.

    Click on the link and you’ll see Jamaica’s new “cosmopolitan” mosaic make up.

  5. This color issue is present wherever in the world “white is right” is promoted. Although I am not of Jamaican or African heritage, I celebrate my brown color and love when it deepens to toasty during my visits to Jamaica. By the way Carolyn, I was there this past month and will return at the end of December for a 4 month winter stay. I would be honored if I could connect and meet with you perhaps at a function or observer in one of your classes. Consider me a fan, with much admiration and respect for what you continue to do. Keep at it!

  6. As a Jamaican woman of Indian descent who went to school in Jamaica in the 1970’s and early 80’s. I was knew that I looked different.
    In my high school my sisters and I were the only ones who looked Indian. However, Jamaican Indians did not have a history to draw upon. What we knew about our history at the time was what we knew from home. Not from history in school, never a mention of the word indenture ship or the boats we came on, Nor the estates we were sent to or the names of the places we came from.

    There was no movement promoting Jamaican minorities. Such as Indians, Chinese and Syrians. We had to figure out who were on our own and from our parents.

    What I came to realize was many black Jamaicans had a warped sense of self despite the history lessons that primarily focused on African Jamaicans. My friend allison in 3rd grade told me she had bad hair and i had good hair. I had never heard that before. But after that I heard it for the rest of life in Jamaica .

    This hate for things black and natural comes from our colonial past. It has stuck to us like glue.

    Moving to the the United States and looking as Indian as I do and having nothing in common culturally with people from India was not strange for me. I have always stood out and not belonged to any group as I have alway viewed myself as Jamaican from a small Indian tribe in Kingston.
    However, I am always a curiosity even to Jamaican people. When black Jamaican people live in the US many tend to become “super black Jamaicans” as they are now the minority. Many Jamaicans wonder where I’m from. I don’t look like them. “So I’m not Jamaican” 🙂

      1. Thank you! Our identities are shaped very early and really stay with us.
        I remember going home and asking my grandmother why do people call me coolie? She said its because we are all very hardworking and strong and those people are just jealous.

        So that was good enough for me.

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